Wednesday, February 15, 2017

Get To Know Your Own Rich Heritage-Black History Month

Get to know your own rich Heritage within your immediate Family during Black Heritage Month.

I was thinking about the above post on Facebook  as I was going through some school records for Oklahoma 1895-1914. In connection to "Black Heritage Month" and enriching our lives with our family heritage I thought I would illustrate how much we are NOT taught about "black history" and how researching our family history can be very rewarding.

Oklahoma School Records 1895-1936 Carter County Woodford District 36

This document is a census of the students attending school in rural Oklahoma circa 1914. At first blush it may seem like an innocent document but as you look deeper at the information and other documents that can be associated with it, a very deep understanding our family history can reveal so much that is not in any history book.

Before Oklahoma became a state in 1907 it was known as Indian Territory. Everyone on this document was alive at the time of Oklahoma statehood but they were not citizens of the United States until November 1907. Consider that for a moment, every individual on this document did not have a country they belong to.

The card does supply a great deal of other information that can either corroborate family history or reveal new information, dates of birth, what was the township and community where they lived Akers and Newport respectively.

The card reveals that the patriarch Hadley LIGGON was not able to write his own name, implying he could not read because he had to make his mark on this document. The fact Hadley could not read or write reminds us how our names can sometimes be misspelled based on someone else making assumptions about that spelling because there was no one to correct them?

One of the crucial things noted on this card is the designation that the people enumerated on it were Choctaw Freedmen. For those who are unfamiliar with this particular history the label is an indication that someone in this family had been enslaved by a Choctaw Indian and once they were “emancipated” they became freedmen of that Indian nation.

There are at least two other documents that can shed more light to this history and they consist of records that were generated about fifteen years earlier by the Dawes Commission. The first is known as a Dawes Card which list all the individuals who were applying and entitled to receive forty acres of land because they or an ancestor was enslaved by a Choctaw Indian.

NARA Record Group 75 M1186 Choctaw Freedmen Card #106 Front

There are three children listed on the school record that also appear on Choctaw Freedmen Roll Card number 106; Gladys, Shadrach LIGON and Sopha DOUGLAS. The other two children though not named specifically are none the less mentioned on Dawes card #106 in the notations that indicate they were newborns on other documents (NB# 163 and NB# 164.)

Record Group 75 M1186 Minor Choctaw Freedmen #163

Record Group 75 M1186 Minor Choctaw Freedmen #164
As you can see when you begin to put all of these documents together along with family oral history it is possible to establish a historical timeline and geography of were these ancestors lived and how they became integrated in their community of Newport, Chickasaw Nation. 

Again, all of these documents provide a window into some history that is well documented but not well known. It is and should be a vital part of what is deemed Black History, Native American History and more importantly, American History because so many lives would be enriched with this knowledge.

Thursday, March 3, 2016

Bettie LOVE-LIGON 151st Birthday

Copyright 2016 Terry J. Ligon
March 1, 2016 would have been the 151st birthday of Bettie LOVE the daughter of an enslaved woman named Margaret Ann ALEXANDER in Burneyville, Indian Territory; Bettie’s father was an influential Chickasaw Indian with large land and slave holdings by the name of Robert Howard LOVE.

It was the circumstances of Bettie’s birth and thousands of men, women and children of similar birth that challenged the system of determining a person’s race by simply classifying them by the perceived race of their mother.

Bettie became the lead litigant in what began as a $15,000,000 (fifteen million dollar) lawsuit that sought a transfer of approximately two thousand people from the Dawes Choctaw and Chickasaw Freedmen rolls to the “citizen by blood” rolls of their respective nation. This suit became better known as “Equity Case 7071.”

When the suit was filed it was said that Bettie stood in front of the county courthouse doors and demanded that they remain open so people who “lived in the country” could have time to sign their names to the list of complainants so they could receive the 320 acres all Chickasaw by blood citizens were allotted.
With these actions Bettie LIGON became one of the unsung heroes in the list of Choctaw and Chickasaw freedmen leaders that populated the rural communities outside of Ardmore, Oklahoma known as Milo, Berwyn, Newport, and Springer.

On April 13, 1907 at 2:00 PM the lawsuit that would involve ultimately more than 2,000 people, twenty million dollars and what could eventually be more than six hundred thousand acres of land became a part of Oklahoma history and American History.

Daily Ardmoreite April 14, 1907
Page 6, Columns 5 & 6
April 13th this year will mark the 109th year since Equity Case 7071 was filed for the proper classification of thousands of people who should have correctly been considered to be Chickasaw or Choctaw Indians as their birthright.

 Imagine, after more than one hundred years later, we have DNA test that can provide more information as to the truth of these people like Bettie through their descendants if they actually possessed “Indian Blood.” Perhaps it is too late for the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations to correct the sins of their fathers and mothers and embraced the descendants of these men and women who have a legitimate claim to citizenship?

Certainly the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations have no obligation to seek and embrace the descendants of Equity Case 7071 and allow them in the tribe.

Perhaps it is based on that lawsuit that sought millions of dollars based on the land lost because their ancestor was considered a Freedman and not a “citizen by blood?”

Perhaps there is still the fear that allowing the descendants into the nation would pose a threat to the numbers of people who might have a voice in the politics of the tribe?

Perhaps, the nations can’t admit that a massive wrong was perpetrated on their own people and to correct it at this time would bring unwanted attention to their tribes as they seek to portray themselves as an honorable people who have had undergone horrific oppression because they are Native American?

Perhaps, the attitudes on race have not significantly changed Native Americans so they can see the descendants of African-Natives as equals?

Bettie LIGON and all of the claimants on Equity Case 7071 just wanted what they thought was justifiably theirs because of their birth and for some reason 109 years later their cause remains to be settled. 

The Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations have a debt to these people and their descendants that must be addressed, how long they will ignore something that in the 21st Century demonstrates how far they have to go to truly be considered a “Civilized Tribe?” 

Wouldn't it be interesting to see how many of these descendants have Native American blood in their DNA test?

Thursday, February 4, 2016

Address Comments to Fold3

Well since you asked; below is the link to Fold3 comments page. It has a drop down list that you can direct your comment, I chose General Feedback and left them this:
Greetings, I was glad to recently receive an email announcing you were offering some of your records free of charge as an effort to honor Black History Month. Upon entering your site I was hoping to have access to the Native American Collection because it has a tremendous importance and impact on researching my ancestors that were enslaved by the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians.

M 1186 Choctaw Freedman Card # 1422 Joe FREEMAN Former Slave Choctaw Nation b. 1829 
I can't tell you how disappointed I was to discover the Native American Collection was not part of the offering for the month of February honoring Black History Month. As a former subscriber I can attest to the importance of the Dawes Cards and their associated Packets for my research. 
M1301 Chickasaw Freedman Card #515 John TAYLOR b. 1842 former slave Chickasaw Nation
The relationship between African descended people and Native Americans is not a well-known history which is why I hope you would consider allowing access to these files as well because they have significance to "Black History" and could add new subscribers to your site.
M1186 Chickasaw by Blood Card # 1805 Joe and Dillard PERRY Landmark case to transfer African-Native people from Freedman Roll to the Choctaw or Chickasaw by blood roll. Over 1500 people sought to be properly placed on the blood roll.
It appears you have so many characters for your message but if you or anyone else is interested in leaving Fold3 a message by all means join the fray!

Wednesday, February 3, 2016

Sequoyah National Research Center-Index of African Descended Peoples & American Indians

The Guide was compiled by James HANDY in the Fall Term, 2014 and reproduced by The Sequoyah National Research Center for the observance of Black History Month February, 2015.

I feel it is important to mention this guide because to many people don’t have knowledge or they have a misunderstanding of the relationships regarding Native Americans and people of African descent. 

I’ve gone through the index and will review it again but I have seen some very interesting titles that require my attention when it comes to the history of slavery among the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians.

Please take the time to visit the index and visit Sequoyah’shomepage to leave them a thank you message for this wonderful source.

Tuesday, February 2, 2016

Does Black History Include Indian Territory?

Earlier in the week I pondered out loud on another site how nice it would be if and opened up their sites for free access during the month of February in honor of “Black History Month.”

I don’t know or recall if they have ever done this before but it would be a nice gesture for thousands of family historians and genealogist to have access to these sites for a limited time to begin or complete research on their families.

Lo and behold I get an email from Fold3 indicating they are opening up their site for “BLACK HISTORY MONTH” and allowing FREE access to their records. I applaud them for this gesture and at the same time I realize this is good marketing for them. Once people have an opportunity to view records that may assist them in their genealogical research they may be inclined to subscribe for access after the month of February?

However, I do have a bone to pick with the good people at Fold3 and that is their seeming inability to include the records of the Native American Collection as part of their “BLACK HISTORY MONTH” freebie. Surely the people are aware of the large amount of records that pertain to African-American history and genealogy that are a vital part of the NATIVE AMERICAN COLLECTION beginning with the Dawes Cards and Enrollment Packets.

There are hundreds if not thousands of records that have a significant impact on the genealogy of Blacks and Native Americans in particularly the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek (Muskogee) and Seminole Nations.

I can only this was an innocent oversight but for someone (me) that is very familiar with these records and understands the importance of them to the history of Black people in this country and their genealogy I find the oversight curious at best. It is my hope that the good people at correct this oversight and open those records as well as those they made available when it comes to the topics of SLAVERY, THE CIVIL WAR, JIM CROW and RECONSTRUCTION, not to mention the issues of Civil Rights in Indian Territory and later the state of Oklahoma aka Little Dixie.

All I need now is a contact person or email address to address my/our concerns? I would also like to see other people voice their concerns about what seems to be a continuing oversight when it comes to the history of Black among the Five Slave Holding Tribes. The question remains, does Black History include Indian Territory?


Thursday, September 17, 2015

The Thomas LOVE Connection, Blood of Their Fathers

Recently I had been contacted by some Chickasaw LOVE descendants and one in particular took me to task about my grandmother’s claim to be the daughter of Robert Howard LOVE . He stated emphatically that it was impossible for Bettie LIGON to be Robert’s daughter and he had the Dawes Choctaw Freedmen card to prove it. Mr. COLE the self-described Chickasaw Elder exchanged a few pleasantries with me and abruptly stopped communicating on the subject; why, I’ll probably never know.  

Fast forward, the other day I was having a discussion with a research colleague about this and that and that and this when she asked me if I had my DNA tested and when was the last time I went online to look at the results. Unfortunately I had to inform her I had not been to 23andme in quite some time and I hadn’t been to the Ancestry DNA site in an equally long time.

After getting off the phone and all of the guilt she was “trying” to lay on me for not having a GED file loaded and some other stuff that was above my pay grade I decided to go online and take a look at what was at Ancestry and came across an email from someone who was classified as a 4th to 6th distant cousin. This individual wanted to share some information and so I accepted his offer. After looking at some of the possible matches we had in common I wrote him back about my first impressions on what his information revealed.

As I told him, at first blush the surname BENNETT stuck out and because his information indicated they lived in Berwyn, Indian Territory of all the names he had in his family tree, this one might have promise.

Well I received a response and my new DNA relative gave me a little more background on the BENNETT and THOMPSON families; how they were “Chickasaws to his knowledge.” I wasn’t totally convinced this was out connection. It was a start and after receiving this message I went back and took another look at the information in his family tree.

Now I saw the LOVE surname but it was only one and it had question marks after the name Liddie so I really didn’t pay a great deal of attention to it at the time initially. I saw another surname JACKSON and of course we all know what a common name this is! I went back to take a closer look and recalled I wrote an article about this very family some time ago.

Liddie or Lidia JACKSON was a claimant on Equity Case 7071 and on her Dawes card you can plainly see where she was seeking a transfer from the Chickasaw Freedman Roll to the Chickasaw by Blood roll; the phrase “See Petition to transfer” is prominent on those who protested being enrolled as Freedmen.

On the rear of Lydia’s card (Chickasaw Freedman #391) she provided the name of her father who was listed as Ben LOVE, Chickasaw. I also remembered Lydia’s daughter Jennie DAVIDSON, (Chickasaw Freedman #390) being the key person seeking a transfer to the Chickasaw Blood Roll

All of this attention and people suddenly coming into my life in some way is a powerful message that illustrates how sometimes things have a way of emerging to tell the story that people like Lydia JACKSON and Bettie LIGON never had the opportunity to effectively tell during their life time.

Bettie protested her enrollment on the Freedmen Roll until her death and I suspect others like Lydia JACKSON and her daughter Jennie DAVIDSON were determined to be rightfully recognized as Chickasaw citizens. Here we are more than one hundred years later and the blood of their fathers may be the one thing that will ultimately tell their story and justify their final acceptance into the nation their birth?

I’m sure anyone who researches LOVE ancestry already understands the connection I have with my new DNA cousin but for those who haven’t figured it out or may not understand some of the intricacies of blended families of Indian Territory I will do my best to explain it.

Simply put, if it is true that Ben LOVE is the father of Lydia JACKSON and if it is true that Ben’s half-brother Robert Howard LOVE is the father of Bettie LIGON,  as I suspect, that indicate the common ancestor for Lydia’s descendants and Bettie’s descendants  is Thomas LOVE.

From everything I can see I have no other connection through marriage or blood that would indicate any descendants of Lydia JACKSON and I have an ancestor in common other than Thomas LOVE.

Throughout my research of Bettie and the claimants of Equity Case 7071 I never made this connection despite the fact it had been staring me in the face for many years. It never dawned on me to look at the siblings of Robert Howard LOVE for confirmation that Bettie was a LOVE.

So this in my opinion opens up a whole new avenue for research and hopefully cooperation of those who are descendants of the people on Equity Case 7071. I would love (no pun intended) to see more of these descendants get DNA tested and compare their test as well as the records of the Dawes Commission to establish that our ancestor’s claims were valid and the Dawes Commission as well as the tribes went to great lengths to deny thousands of people millions of dollars in land allotments.

One last thing; when I took a look at the common matches between me and my new DNA cousin the results indicated there were two other people who had the same or similar DNA match. One of those individuals I knew as one of my sister’s son and the other was someone related to my new cousin.

When I first saw that information it threw me because I couldn’t imagine who this fourth person was and how they fit into the puzzle. BUT if I’m correct this is a whole new ballgame!

Saturday, August 1, 2015


Recently I received an email through the Find A Grave website from someone who called themself “Chickasaw Elder.” In the email they felt the need to tell me my great grandmother Bettie was in fact not the daughter of the man she knew as her father to her dying day as a Chickasaw Indian named Robert Howard Love.

Let me back up a bit, the first email I received seemed innocent enough; Chickasaw Elder at first made a “suggestion” regarding the memorial I established for Bettie Ligon at:

This was the original email I received with some editing for clarity,
“Hello, I am not asking for any changes. My Question is do you know of any decimation for Bettie Ligon being the daughter of Robert Howard love. Any help you may offer would be most welcome. I have been using Chickasaw Loves and Allied Families by Marie Garland King as source info when doing research “
Chickasaw Elder

Why this individual was interested in Bettie was not clear but I attempted to respond to the inquiry as best I could within reason until I could determine their true interest. When I attempted to respond via Find A Grave I discovered C.E.’s email had been disabled so I found another method of responding and sent this email.

“Not sure if you are the person that sent me an email about Bettie Love-Ligon but you failed to supply me with an email to discuss your question. Also your message capability is disabled on Find A Grave so I couldn't respond on your page “
This was the follow-up email.

Mr. Terry for some reason this was sent to another family member. Please use this e-mail address . I am the Chickasaw Elder you are referring to .
I come from a very well-known Chickasaw /Choctaw family . My great aunt Martha Bynum. She was the wife of Overton” Sobe” Love.
Robert Howard Love uncle of husband of 2nd great grand aunt                                                                                                                                              He was not the father of Bettie Ligon

I can send to you several Ligon family members that you maybe interested in .Respectfully  Robert was not the father of   Bettie Ligon

Since this was the first time I can recall someone from the Chickasaw Nation engaging me in a discussion on the genealogy of the Love family I had to bite and responded again hoping to conduct a meaningful conversation about each other’s research and discoveries in hopes I could receive some answers about Robert Howard Love and his connection to my great grandmother Bettie. So I responded with this email:

I'm intrigued how much you have on the LIGON family members you refer to and how you are certain Robert Howard Love was not the father of Bettie Love-Ligon.

I am familiar with some of the surnames you mention that are related to your family's history BYNUM, COLBERT and others, I am also familiar with the Marie Garland book and have a copy of it given to me by an employee at OHS about a hundred years ago.  :-)

Quite frankly you are the first Chickasaw that has attempted to engage me in a conversation about this history and I truly appreciate the gesture; however I would really like to know how you are definitive Bettie was not the daughter of Robert Howard Love?

Hope to hear more about your history and what you can contribute to the record of Bettie Love-Ligon.
Well it was not long before Chickasaw Elder revealed himself with a name and sent me this little reply:

I am not certain nor definitive your words that Bettie was not the daughter of Robert Howard love.  I just can not find any documentation for it. I am aware that this was not uncommon for slaves during this time in tribal history.  In fact my Indian family Bynum, Harkins, Johnston, Thompson,Love and Colbert had many slaves they often took their owners last name. Some were placed in the will of their owner sad but true. One example would be John A Bynum my 4th great grandfather         
beloved wife Tennessee - one negro woman Kisnader and her four children: Emaline, Isaac, Charles and Rebecca; household and kitchen furniture Beloved sons Turner Bynum and John R. Bynum - negro man Jeffery, man Isaac, woman Amy and her daughter Jane, a girl Patience, boy Booker, boy Josiah.

This does not indicate the above were family members . In Bettie’s case she may have been family but respectfully without documentation it’s pure conjecture at this point. I have done research on the Ligon family Only because they married into the Duty side of my extended family. You maybe interested to know that Chickasaw LT Governor Jefferson Keel has several Ligons in his direct family line.


John Cole

It was beginning to appear my friend was deliberately being vague so I decided to engage in a more in-depth and meaningful conversation with hopes I could get something of substance on his belief Robert Howard Love was not the father of Bettie. This was my response:

Greetings John,

I'm sure you are aware that because Chickasaws held people of African and African-Native descent as slaves the institution and laws that it was predicated on did not specifically generate documentation that would establish the child of a slave and their owner or any other Chickasaw for that matter. The laws of the tribe strictly forbade miscegenation between "Chickasaws and any one of Negro descent."

The idea that there would be documentation for something that would allegedly have a Chickasaw violate tribal law would be enough of a deterrent to prevent someone from declaring their paternity in a written document.

Having said all of that you need only look at the 1860 Slave Schedule for Arkansas and see there were numerous anecdotal evidence of "mixed race children" in the Chickasaw Nation. Furthermore and too the point, Bettie Ligon represented approximately 2000 other individuals who claimed to have a Choctaw or Chickasaw ancestor and as you say, they didn't have the documentation of their ancestry despite their claims.

I think it a little to simplistic to argue a point that on the surface is built with a certain disingenuous need for documentation when practically everyone on the Dawes by Blood roll did not have "documentation" of their birth and ancestry. The criterion was based solely on what tribal elders/members/family established based on marriage (which was "allegedly" prohibited between a "Negro" and Chickasaw.)

As I recall Bettie was born in 1865 and her father Robert Howard Love died circa 1889 and as you say there is no record (that I have been able to locate) that has him claiming her as his daughter but there is a wealth of documentation of Bettie making a claim that she was his daughter. One of the witnesses to this was Robert Howard Love's servant Simon Love, who stated he heard Robert Howard Love in fact did claim Bettie as his daughter. Clearly that would be hearsay but you see the predicament of someone like Bettie trying to prove their ancestry in a climate that was adverse to such a claim, especially during the enrollment period when Bettie would have been entitled to 320 acres of land as opposed to the forty given to "freedmen."

Since you have done research on the Ligon line I would be interested to know which Ligon family in particular you are referring to. There were a few in Indian Territory that were enrolled on the Dawes Rolls but I have only identified two families in the Chickasaw Nation and they were on the freedmen rolls and not related as far as I can determine.
The other Ligon family that I'm familiar with that may be who you are referring to came out of Cooke County, TX near Gainesville and they were part of the (don't hold me to this one I don't have my notes in front of me) Dr. Steven S. Ligon (not sure of first name.) He came to TX by way of MO & KY as I recall and there was a Bettie Ligon in this family though not the same person.

John I know it is practically impossible for anyone who had an ancestor on the freedman roll to claim ancestry as a Chickasaw but it is (in my opinion) disingenuous to argue  about "documentation" when there was little ever produced as in Certificates of Birth and the like in 1830, 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890, and even 1900. For many people the Dawes Rolls may be the first documentation of birth. It was not until Oklahoma became a state and a few years later that "official" vital records were created. So I see that argument misleading and one that if applied to everyone descendant on the Dawes Roll would have a few people being stricken as we speak.

Despite all of that and all of the prohibitions on miscegenation I'm sure you would not be surprise to know that there were many (no numerous) cases of mixed "marriages" that resulted in African-Chickasaw children. I could name many who are on the rolls today despite there being laws that would have/should have prohibited this.  John you know as well as I do that the determinate reason for them being on the rolls today is they had a female ancestor who was "recognized" (not documented) as a "Chickasaw by blood" and that is the main reason their descendants are on the rolls today.

I'll have to check on that reference you made about Kissander BYNUM I recall there may have been some of her descendants that claimed Chickasaw ancestry, but don't quote me.I haven't had my head in these records for a while so forgive me if I'm a little rusty on the history. It has always intrigued me about the manner in which people viewed this history especially those in the nation because there is from what I see a different slant on what is and isn't part of the history and how it is accepted or rejected as part of "tribal history."

I lost a dear friend last year 83 years young who was an enrolled citizen of the Chickasaw Nation and I miss our discussions on this history and her particular view. She was the grand daughter of a woman who had a father on the freedman roll and a great grandmother who was "recognized" as a Chickasaw. Again, that recognition came from the only documentation being on a payroll, it didn't document paternity or maternity. In other words the Chickasaws like the other tribes practice the antebellum tradition of determining the so called race of an individual on the so called race of the mother; they in fact ignored the contribution of the father and made all sorts of "reasons" to justify basically disowning their own people because of racial prejudice.

It is my opinion what continues today when the idea that there is no evidence or documentation to establish paternity when that documentation would have been rejected if the father were Chickasaw and the mother someone of "African" ancestry. Quite frankly it is a bogus argument built to deceive.

I attached some documents from a file that was an affidavit given by Simon Love for an Application for Chickasaw Citizenship in 1896 by Bettie Ligon. You may find it interesting.

His response to this was very interesting to say the least. I read and re-read my response and for the life of me I don’t know why he felt I implied he was being a bigot? Yet he feels the need to go there with some interesting folks as his references, especially former Oklahoma Speaker T.W. Shannon who I share some ancestry.


I received your e-mail it was very well written and to the point. Well done. Now let’s establish some ground rules. First if you are implying that I am being a bigot, I suggest you contact TW Shannon, former Oklahoma Speaker of the House, a Black Chickasaw and a Close and Trusted Friend, also JC Watts Former US Congressmen and the Pastor who gave the Sermon at My Mothers Funeral.

Next, I did not set the rule of law for the Chickasaw Nation at the time they were written. I think Dawes Commission and Tribal Elders did. I believe all of your concerns have been addressed in court (The Cherokee Tribe) comes to mind. As far as Bettie is concerned here is what I have from Ancestry.
Here are some links at

 John Cole

As you can see this was not going well as I had hoped but I find it “interesting” that someone would only look at the Dawes Records and conclude that was the entire story that established an ancestor, my ancestor’s genealogical history.

Like I said in a response, I have viewed practically EVERY Choctaw and Chickasaw Dawes Card, Freedmen AND by Blood to the point a lot of these names I know like the back of my hand. Yet Mr. Cole suggests that because the ONLY records (he knows about) are the Dawes Commission enrollment cards.

He has taken one aspect of this story and concluded without a doubt there is no possibility that Bettie was not the daughter of Robert Howard Love. He has evidently never seen her Certificate of Death where the informant declared Robert Howard Love to be Bettie’s father. Mr. Cole has probably never heard about Equity Case 7071 where Bettie and approximately 1600-2000 people claimed to have an ancestor who was Chickasaw by Blood only to be placed on the Dawes Freedmen Rolls that Mr. Cole bases his argument on as “Proof” that a person like Bettie had no documentation of who her father was.

I would like to think Mr. Cole took the time to look at the Congressional Record Serial Set to see the volume of material that attempted to address the issue of citizenship by blood in the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations only to be forgotten in the history told by those two nations when people like Mr. Cole rely just on Dawes Records as proof someone fathered by a Chickasaw during the ante-bellum period of their history “had no record” of what their identity may actually be.

I’m not sure what his intentions were but he does give himself away when he pretty much concludes by more priceless misdirection when I responded with the following response:

What research have you done regarding Bettie Love-Ligon to motivate you to approach me with this subject and your conclusions? I don't see what you hope to accomplish with this determination and you had to have some idea I would reject your thesis.

I was simply Asking for your Help to complete My family Tree NOTHING More THEN That !
It is very unfortunate that people can’t have honest and frank discussions about the history of slavery among the Five Slave Holding Tribes and understand that a lot of what transpired needs to be researched, analyzed and put in its proper perspective.

As I said before, there may never be the kind of documentation that Mr. Cole seeks to satisfy his point that someone may have Chickasaw blood that did not get enumerated on the Dawes by blood rolls. He and the citizens in the nation need to be honest about their complicity in the travesty of not recognizing the children of Chickasaw males who had a mother of African or African-Native descent.

Let me conclude with this little tidbit. Recently I came across an astounding document that was brought on behalf of a son of Robert Howard Love, by a white woman seeking recognition as a Chickasaw by blood. Clearly there was substantial documentation of this child being the illegitimate son of Robert Howard Love, documentation that in some ways mirrors the documentation of Bettie but it went further.

This documentation demonstrated clearly that Robert Howard Love declared this child to be his even out of wedlock and while he was married to another woman. The documentation established the Love adopted the child as his son leaving him with 640 acres of land with instructions to have him educated.

However there was one aspect about this case that was very revealing. The first page to the file was a question of law; and that was whether the Chickasaw Nation recognized an illegitimate child of a MALE Chickasaw as a citizen by blood!

The conclusion that was issued established without a doubt citizenship by blood was inherited whether by the father or mother, IT DIDN’T MATTER! If you had a Chickasaw ancestor by blood, YOU WERE CHICKASAW!

What was more astounding was the decision was based on a judgment by Robert Howard Love’s own brother Sam Love, who was the District Judge at the time of the ruling over a citizenship issue involving land and Robert Howard Love and someone Robert argued was not a Choctaw citizen based on being an illegitimate child.

“Love denied that Mrs. Roff was a legitimate child and she was not entitled to citizenship. The district Judge, to the best of my recollection, was Sam Love, full brother to Bob Love. He said the rule was, didn’t make any difference how they were Indians, whether by lawful marriage or not if they proved up any Indian blood were entitled to all of the rights of citizens and over-ruled Bob Love’s motion and went to trial.”

This is why the Dawes Commission and the tribes abused the system that would have recognized the litigants in Equity Case 7071 their rightful claim to citizenship. They were held to a degree of proof that the majority of children of enslaved women could never produce and was not present in their Dawes enrollment “summations.” It is also this kind of proof that citizens in the tribes today rest their case on, if a person appears on the freedmen roll then that “proves” they don’t have “Indian” blood. 

I tell you, the more I try to get away from this stuff they keep trying to pull me back in...