Indian Citizen April 18, 1907 p1, col.1
As a result of these types of antebellum policies we have thousands of people today who descend from an “Indian ancestor” but denied recognition and citizenship. So how is it that on many of the "by blood" cards there are "Intermarried Whites" listed who were "non-Indian but enumerated on a "Chickasaw by blood" card? If the practice or custom was consistent and they "followed the status of their non-Indian mothers" why are these children listed as some fraction of Chickasaw Indian but the children of Jesse McGee only follow the "race" of their African descended mother?
Roberson BROWN Chickasaw by blood # 525
William F. WARREN Chickaaw by blood # 569
Dudley Nail DOAK Chickasaw by blood 531
M1650 # 111 Callie NEWBERRY
At the same time as stated before, this practice also prevented people of mixed African-Native American blood to be placed on the proper roll for purposes of land allotment of three hundred and twenty acres as opposed to the forty acres a person received if they were determined to be descended from a former slave. Clearly more research will have to be conducted to determine if the Intermarried Whites received a land allotment based on their appearance as a citizen on the Dawes Cards?
Caldonia NEWBERRY "Mixed Blood" Chiksa lusta # 235 (rear)
What is even more curious is today the Five Slave Holding Tribes continue this practice of determining citizenship by relying on the “Dawes by Blood Roll.” An emphasis is placed on being “descended from someone on the Dawes Blood Roll” but they exclude the Dawes Freedmen Roll in that consideration and adhere to an policy that appears to have been flawed from the beginning.
Chickasaw Nation: "This department provides CDIB, citizenship and information to Chickasaws who are direct descendants of enrollees on the Dawes Commission Rolls. An applicant must be able to trace his/her heritage through bloodlines to an original enrollee listed on the Dawes Commission Rolls in order to obtain a CDIB. Required forms are available at the above address."
If the idea is to have a tribe of “Indians” that are traced to an ancestor on the Dawes Roll, you have to ask the question what makes an Indian? The other question that should be asked is whether the Dawes Rolls accurately depicts “Indian blood?” Does the roll determine who was an Indian or non-Indian? Are the rolls merely a tool to determine who was entitled to citizenship in the nation? Do the rolls minimize the population of African and African-Native people within the nation?One thing is certain, it is difficult to describe the Chickasaw final Dawes Roll strictly and exclusively as Chickasaw by Blood!
Chickasaw Freedwoman Harriet TAYLOR
Grandmother of Joe and Dillard PERRY(mixed blod Chickasaws)# 61
It was the case of Joe and Dillard PERRY that set the stage for the lawsuit of approximately two thousand people of mixed African-Choctaw and African-Chickasaw people who were denied recognition as Native American; to this day their descendants are being referred to as "Non-Indian."