Thursday, May 26, 2011

Timeline Thursday-Blacks Among the Five Civilized Tribes 1865-1879

Andrew Johnson
Brady-Handy Photograph Collection
(Library of Congress)

1865-Andrew  Johnson 1808-1875; 17th U.S. President (1865-1869) With the Assassination of Lincoln , the Presidency fell upon an old-fashioned southern Jacksonian Democrat of pronounced states' rights views. Although an honest and honorable man, Andrew Johnson was one of the most unfortunate of Presidents. Arrayed against him were the Radical Republicans in Congress, brilliantly led and ruthless in their tactics. Johnson was no match for them

March 1, 1865 Bettie Love-Ligon born in Burneyville, Indian Territory, Bettie was the daughter of Robert Howard Love a” mixed blood” Chickasaw citizen and Margaret Ann Wilson, a “mixed blood” enslaved woman. Bettie became the lead litigant in a law suit (Equity Case 7071); that sought to transfer approximately 2000 individuals from the Choctaw and Chickasaw Freedmen Dawes Rolls to the “Citizens by blood” rolls of the respective nation of one of their Choctaw or Chickasaw Indian parent.

July 1868-Choctaw and Chickasaw Freedmen petition Congress for their removal and payment of the $300,000 for use in their removal from the Choctaw and Chickasaw Freedmen. (Senate Executive Document 82; 40th Congress, 2nd Session)

Ulysses S. GrantBrady-Handy Photograph Collection
(Library of Congress)
1869-Ulysses Simpson Grant 1822-1885; 18th President U.S. (1869-1877) and Civil War General; When he was elected, the American people hoped for an end to turmoil. Grant provided neither vigor nor reform. Looking to Congress for direction, he seemed bewildered.

March 1870- Letter of Secretary of War; Report of S. N. Clark special agent of
Freedmen’s Bureau on condition of Choctaw and Chickasaw

January 1872-Choctaw Freedmen petition Congress; “Your petitioners, freedmen of the Choctaw Nation, feel grateful to the Government of the United States for the blessings of freedom, and are not willing to be adopted by the Choctaw Nation, or become citizens of any Indian nation, government, or power that claims to be foreign. to the Government of the United States, but desire to be and remain citizens of the United States, and enjoy all the rights and privileges enjoyed by any other class of citizens."

Cyrus Harris
Governor Chickasaw Nation
Chronicles of Oklahoma
February 1873- Chickasaw Nation, dated the 23d ultimo, together with a letter addressed to the President of the United States, by Cyrus Harris, governor of said nation, dated the 10th ultimo, transmitting an act of the Chickasaw legislature providing for the adoption of Negroes in the Chickasaw country, referred to in the third article of the treaty with the Choctaws and Chickasaws, concluded April 28, 1866

June 1873-C. Delano Secretary of the Department of the Interior wishes A. Parsons, U. S. Agent for the Choctaws and Chickasaw to be notified of the law regarding freedmen in Indian Territory. He says they are afforded the same protection and punishment as is provided for Choctaws and Chickasaws.

March 1874 – Editorial; the 14th amendment to the Constitution has made freedmen and not the Indians, citizens of the United States

July 1875-Two more colored schools are to be established in the Choctaw Nation, one at Scullyville and one at Doaksville.

Rutherford B. Hayes
Brady-Handy Photograph Collection

1876- Rutherford Birchard Hayes 1822-1893; 19th U.S. President (1877-1881); technically lost election but took office after Compromise of 1877 with Democrats. Rutherford B. Hayes had little political power during his four years in office, he narrowly won the White House by one vote after the Compromise of 1877. The Democrats ceded the White House to the Republicans for an end to Reconstruction in the South.

May 1876-There are more than 300 colored voters in the Creek Nation who were once slaves in the tribe.

April 1878-Sugar George Esq., attorney and counselor at law practicing before the courts of the Creek nation, visited Eufaula last Saturday April 20, 1878, looking after ways and means to build the new school for the colored students of the nation. Three thousand dollars was appropriated by the council for that purpose.

Indian Journal April 24, 1878 p5 c2

April 1878-R.A. Leslie, an educated Creek Indian who for some time has had charge of a school at Summit, Mississippi, is expected to open a school for colored children at Muskogee about July 1st. 

April 1879-The Choctaws and Chickasaws paid the U. S. Government $300,000 to remove the Negroes from their nations in 1866. A commission will meet at Caddo April 14th 1879, to urge fulfillment of contract.

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