Thursday, November 9, 2017

Timeline Thursday-Blacks Among the Five Slave Holding Tribes 1906-1913


April 1906-Five Tribes Bill established final enrollment deadline of March 4, 1907. Claimants
Muskogee Democrat p4c4-5
were allowed one more chance for appeal. The bill placed a 25-year restriction on 'full blood' land.

November 1906 - The department of the interior reverses the decision of Tams Bixby relating to new born Choctaw freedmen: giving those under 21 years of age, who were living on March 19, 1906 a right to enrollment

February 1907-Senate Investigation into the “Official Conduct” of William O. Beall, Secretary to the Commissioner of the Five Civilized Tribes. (Senate Document 357; 59th Congress, 2nd Session)

February 1907-Resolution of Constitutional Convention of Oklahoma remonstrating against the passage of the bill to authorize the so-called Frisco Railway Company to consolidate and merge certain small branch lines in the Indian Territory.

March 1907-Five Tribes' governments cease operations. All rolls were closed.



April 1907-A vigilance committee of the citizens of Waurika posted notices to the Negroes to vacate the community within twenty four hours.

April 1907-The suit Bettie Ligon et al., (Equity Case 7071) filed in the United States Court at Ardmore Saturday evening(April 13th) involving property worth probably $15,000,000, attracts attention as one of the most gigantic pieces of litigation in the history of the Indian Territory. The litigants sought to be transferred from the Choctaw or Chickasaw Freedmen rolls to the respective by blood roll. 

May 1907-Tulsa, May 29, Judge William Lawrence, in a special court session here today, denied the intervention set up by Joseph H. Tiger, a Creek freedman, in the case of Smith and Fewell, versus .S. S. Steele. The decision is far reaching, effecting 5,000 Creek freedmen.

July 1907-Some 2,000 Cherokee freedmen who have lost out in the citizenship courts but are still in possession of lands on which they have lived for years are to be ejected by the United States Indian Agent.

November 16, 1907- Oklahoma Territory as well as Indian Territory became a memory on this date with the signing of the statehood proclamation by President Theodore Roosevelt, Oklahoma became the 46th State.

April 1908-Muskogee; Since the “Jim Crow” law went into effect in Oklahoma it has been observed that the Negroes established a boycott on the street car company.

April 1908-Muskogee, OK, Justice Wright of the United States Supreme Court issued a writ of mandamus compelling the Secretary of the Interior to place Lillie Lowe and six other Cherokee freedmen, who had been stricken from the rolls by the Dawes Commission, back on the rolls, and give them allotments.

May 1908-Congress removed restrictions on all Tribal allotments to whites, some 'mixed-bloods' and freedmen. Restrictions were retained for 'full blood' and some mixed bloods. More than 11,000 requests to remove restrictions were filed the first year.

June 1908-Hominy: The importing of Negro laborers in this section has given rise to intense feeling of opposition among white citizens, who are against the populating of the state with the black race

San Francisco Call p34 c3 February 24, 1907
September 1908-George Washington, an aged Negro of Okmulgee is preparing to call a state convention of Negroes to take up the proposition of colonizing Liberia with Oklahoma Negroes.

September 1908-Judge A. H. Huston in the district court at Guthrie declared unconstitutional the Oklahoma separate school law providing separate school boards and separate schools for Negroes in the new state.

October 1908-U. S. Court of Appeals ruled that Bettie Ligon and family are freedmen and not of Chickasaw and Choctaw blood. Records from Dancing Creek Treaty in Mississippi of 1830 were introduced to show that the Ligon's were lineal descendants, if they were of blood they would be entitled to 320 acres, freedmen received only 40 acres.

February 1909-A Muskogee grand jury indicts Gov. Charles Haskell and three others, charging fraud in a Muskogee and Tulsa town lot scheme.

March 1909 – Race Riot: Hickory Grounds; Negroes, Indians; Militia Sent.

May 1909-Washington. The court of claims has rendered a decision which will give one thousand four hundred Cherokee Freedmen applicants, a chance to go into court and prove that they were unjustly rejected by the Dawes Commission when they were entitled to enrollment and allotment

July 1909-NAACP founded.

July 1909-Lynching murder of Albert Turner

July 1910-Regarding the “Negro disfranchisement,” which is a live issue in Oklahoma, Ex-President Roosevelt asserts that neither state nor party can afford to disfranchise Negroes by indirection

June 1911-Charles Cohee and other freedmen have filed an appeal in the Supreme Court contesting the judgment rendered against them in favor of Turner & Wiggins Negro attorneys

September 1911-The Negroes of Colbert, Oklahoma have organized for mutual protection against the efforts of the whites to drive them from that part of the country.

July 1912-Attorney General West will go to Muskogee Friday and represent the state in proceeding instituted before U. S. Judge Ralph K. Campbell, to compel the registration of Negroes in eastern counties, without regard to their qualifications under the “Grandfather Clause.”

July 1913-Believing that the Grandfather Clause and the Jim Crow Law was placed on the statute book to make life as uncomfortable as possible for them, 125 or more Negroes will leave Oklahoma City in September to go to Monrovia, Liberia.


December 1913-Fifteen hundred Negroes residing along the Ft. Smith and Western Railway, have completed arrangements to sail for Africa the first of the year.